The so-called "Arab Spring" events occurred for the first time in Tunisia. The people of Tunisia revolted on 17 December 2010 when a university student who was wronged burned himself. These movements later spread to other Islamic countries. Those who claimed that these events would bring "democracy and freedom" to these countries called these movements the Arab Spring. However, these events did not bring a spring to the Arab countries. On the contrary, some Arab countries were pushed into fascism and civil war.
In order to understand the developments and the results in the Arab Spring, it is necessary to examine the historical past. After the 2nd World War, the powers that dominated the world especially tried to prevent communist movements. Because Mao's Chinese revolution in 1949 was intimidating. It was thought that the easiest and most reliable way to prevent such revolutionary movements was to establish and manage such movements by the intelligence services of powerful states. Thus, those with revolutionary views would join these movements and expose themselves. These people could then be easily disposed of.
This method worked very well and has been used to date. With this method, the powers that dominate the world can carry out military coups and popular movements in any country they want. People who hold views they don't want have been neutralized on the pretext that they participate directly or indirectly in these movements.
Many university students participated in the movements with the management and control of the intelligence agencies, as well as the university students' occupation of universities and reform demand movements that emerged in the world in 1968. Students who advanced in these actions were neutralized in various ways after a while. The weapons given to the students led them to armed actions. Where did these weapons come from and through whom were they given to the students? Although the answers to these questions have been hidden until now, it is not difficult to guess that they were made with the cooperation of intelligence units.
Organizing such movements provides two kinds of benefits to the dominant powers: First, The people with extreme tendencies can be detected and neutralized; secondly, the destabilization of the countries where the movements take place in all respects and the prevention of their development. These two outcomes have largely served the imperialist ambitions of the dominant powers to date.
We can perceive the actions that led to the emergence of the Arab Spring in this way. Particularly in Arab countries, it was possible to create confusion in these countries by using organized radicals and violent people. Radical and violent organizations such as Al-Qaeda, ISIS and Nusayri, which are very popular today, were founded by imperialist powers for the same purpose. These organizations have triggered inter-sectarian conflict by posing as Islamists.
The Muslim Brotherhood organization was also wanted to be included in this conflict. However, there are no sectarian fights in the main ideologies of the Muslim Brotherhood. They have been against sectarian fights from the very beginning of the organizations. However, the imperialist powers were able to get into them and make some of them radical and pro-violent. For this reason, people from the Brotherhood of Muslim can be seen at the head of terrorist groups such as Al-Qaeda and ISIS. However, these people are the men of the intelligence agents and do not represent a real Ikhwan mentality.
This situation causes many anti-Islamic people to speak against the religion of Islam. However, when we consider how such organizations were established and managed, it is easy to understand by whom the heads of them were appointed and managed. True Brotherhood members do not take part in such radical terrorist organizations.
After World War II, the USA and other world powers took over the Muslim Brotherhood. Western imperialists established a Muslim Brotherhood organization parallel to Hasan al-Banna's organization. This organization was deployed to other countries and used in actions. In this way, the Muslim Brotherhood organization, which is under the command of the West, unfortunately discredited the real Muslim Brotherhood organization. With the actions of this fake organization, they tried to both discredit Islam and destabilize those countries. When the Muslim Brotherhood, which was formed by the West, came to power in Arab countries, they committed acts such as corruption, nepotism and abuse of influence. These have nothing to do with the ideology and principles of the real Muslim Brotherhood. Thus, they tried to discredit the real Muslim Brotherhood organization in the eyes of Muslims. This was something the western imperialists wanted. In this way, both Islam would be defamed in the eyes of the people and the country would be exploited. Unfortunately, almost all Islamic countries have experienced this.
Some authors claimed that the Muslim Brotherhood was founded by masons. It has been claimed that Hasan al-Banna was also a Freemason and was influenced by people such as Efgani, Abduh and Rıza. It was also claimed that they served German intelligence when Hitler came to power in 1932. It is easy to see that these claims are meaningless when compared to what Benna et al did. Because the Muslim Brotherhood's activities and the pamphlets they publish, explain the understanding of Ahl as-sunnat Islam correctly. No freemason likes to explain Islam correctly. Because the Masonic organization sees Islam as an enemy and an obstacle to their own goals. For this reason, the claim that Benna and his friends are freemasons is completely false and absurd, since the understanding of Islam and the activities they do in this direction are not something that any mason can accept.
However, it is easy to understand that agents and provocateurs of imperialism got involved in the Muslim Brotherhood after World War II. Because after the 2nd World War, the USA infiltrated such organizations and sometimes used these organizations in the wrong ways. In this context, the Brotherhood organization may be a tool for some assassinations in Egypt. However, Benna was assassinated by the state in 1949 and was martyred. This shows that he is not a person to be liked by the imperialists. The Egyptian state was in the hands of the British and after the Second World War, the British handed over its dominance to the USA. Therefore, the martyrdom of Benna was an imperialist desire of the USA. If Benna had been a mason, they would not have done this and would have continued to use Benna for their own purposes.
It is also very wrong to see the Muslim Brotherhood as a continuation of the Salafist and religious reform understandings led by Efgani, Abduh and Rıza. Because these three musketeers (Efgani, Abduh, Rıza) who set out to reform Islam tried to corrupt Islam. These three musketeers, who are known to be freemasons, did not think of serving Islam. In line with the wishes of western powers, on the contrary, they tried to corrupt Islam. For this reason, they have nothing to do with the ideology and aims of the Muslim Brotherhood. Those who make these claims are definitely the people who are enemies of Islam. Thus, the views of Benna and his friends are tried to be discredited in the eyes of Muslims. All this is in vain. Because now Muslims distinguish between right and wrong. All the strategies of the enemies of Islam are being deciphered.
They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths. However, even if the disbelievers dislike it, Allah will complete His light. (Pure, 61/8)
The so-called Arab spring events occurred for the first time in Tunisia. A popular uprising started in Tunisia on 17 December 2010, when a university student who was wronged and persecuted by the state set himself on fire. At the end of this, events came to a halt when President Zeynel Abidin Ben Ali, who ruled Tunisia for 23 years with the pressure of the soldiers, fled the country on January 14, 2011. President Ben Ali first headed to France by plane. However, Sarkozy said to his friend Ben Ali, "don't come". Then the plane headed for Berlisconi's Italy. But President Ben Ali, who was not accepted here, turned to Saudi Arabia. Ben Ali has been living in this country ever since.
In the elections that followed, the Ennahda Party received 20% of the votes. The Ennahda Party formed the government together with two left-wing and social-democratic parties. However, the serious problems between those with an Islamic inclination and the secularists continued to experience demonstrations and conflicts in the country. In Tunisia, the Ennahda Party could not stay in power for a long time and could not produce the Islamic constitution they wanted. Meanwhile, assassinations targeting the left-leaning trade unionists, intellectuals and politicians were being carried out. This made the people nervous. In the elections held in October 2014, the Ennahda Party lost power. Instead, the Social-Democratic Call of Tunisia Party formed a government together with the two secular parties. However, this government could not provide stability in Tunisia.
Ennahda's leader, Ghannouchi, had lived in Europe for 20 years before the Arab Spring. The Ennahda Party later defined itself as a Muslim Democratic party at the congress on May 25, 2016. The country is still in a state of instability and turmoil. Because foreign intelligence agencies in the country are constantly causing incidents. Thus, a Muslim government in Tunisia is prevented from coming to power. In other words, Tunisia is always under the control of western imperialism.
After Tunisia, the Arab spring first affected Egypt and confusion arose in the country. These turmoil lasted from January 25, 2011 to February 11, 2011. At the end of these protests against the Mubarak administration, which has been ruling the country for 30 years under military tutelage, increasing corruption and violating basic human rights, Mubarak resigned under pressure from the military. Mubarak was detained while trying to flee to Saudi Arabia after resigning. He was then arrested and prosecuted. After 30 years of one-man rule, he is in prison wearing a prison outfit.
During the Mubarak period, Egypt became very dependent on institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank. The interest on the loans they took increased their debts and these unpaid debts caused great damage to the Egyptian economy. The people tried to continue their lives in such an environment of bribery and corruption. On the other hand, the low income of the people, the problems such as unemployment and inflation left the people in a very difficult situation.
Various religious and political groups, which have been struggling with political pressures for many years, also had an impact on the Arab spring in Egypt. The Muslim Brotherhood movement is one of these groups. However, he was not the main actor at the beginning of the process and acted cautiously at first. In the first days of the demonstrations, the Brotherhood organization did not invite its members to support these demonstrations, but did not call for them not to participate. Two days after the start of the demonstrations, Mohammed Morsi, one of the Brotherhood leaders, made the following statement: We are not the force pushing this movement. But we are a group that acts together with these movements. We do not wish to lead the movement. But we want to be a part of the movement.
On February 4, 1 million people marched in Alexandria after Friday prayers to demand Mubarak's resignation. The United Nations announced that 346 people were killed by Egypt's security forces during the demonstrations on 5 February. In the face of these events and as a result of social pressure, Vice President Ömer Süleyman announced on 11 February 2011 that Hosni Mubarak had resigned.
The Muslim Brotherhood organization was prevented from being involved in the political process during the Mubarak period. However, the Brotherhood of Muslim formed the most important Islamic structure in Egypt's social structure. Ihvan-ı Muslimin, who participated in the parliamentary elections in 2005 with independent candidates, won 88 seats. During the revolution, the need to become a political party was felt. The reason for this is the hesitation they have experienced due to years of oppression and violence.
Right after the overthrow of Mubarak, the Muslim Brotherhood founded the party called the Freedom and Justice Party on June 6, 2011. Mohammed Morsi was elected as the party chairman. Social justice and the establishment of an Islamic government were among the most emphasized issues in Muhammad Morsi's discourses. After that, in the parliamentary election held in Egypt, the Brotherhood of Muslim became the first party by receiving 36.6% of the votes and 40% of the seats in the parliament, and it had 218 deputies. The second important power in the parliament behind the Brotherhood is the Salafi group's Nur Party. Nur Party won 108 seats with 21% of the votes. After the overthrow of Mubarak, in the Presidential election held on 30 June 2012, the candidate of the Muslim Brotherhood, Professor Mohammed Morsi, was elected President with 51.7% of the votes.
On the days when the demonstrations in Egypt increased, the Egyptian General Staff Delegation went to the USA. While America's aid was a determining factor in the construction of the Egyptian army, its senior officials were also trained by the United States. In the face of millions of Egyptians taking to the squares in the country, the Egyptian tutelage and the USA jointly evaluated the situation and determined what they should do. In accordance with this policy, the Egyptian army and the Pentagon did not intervene in the soft transition process, on the contrary, they acted as if they were indifferent. However, since they were convinced that the current administration with Mubarak was unsustainable, they did not intervene violently against the people in the first place. They continued this process until Mohammed Morsi came to power and saw his practices. Because practices such as a violent reaction against the people and destroying the success of the Muslim Brotherhood did not work for them. Because that way, they would really fall in the eyes of the public.
The Egyptian people expected Morsi to solve the problems of the country that Hosni Mubarak and previous rulers had destroyed in an instant. However, during the one-year Presidency of Morsi, he could not easily find the opportunity to solve the deep-rooted problems. On the other hand, pro-US groups saw this as an unsuccessful behavior and took the people to the streets and directed them to protest the Brotherhood. These opposing foreign powers created chaos in the country with the clashes on the streets and left Morsi in a difficult situation, paving the way for the army to seize the administration. For this, local and international media and press, Salafist groups, leftist organizations, secular segments and many businessmen worked together. It is clear that these groups are supporters of the USA. All of them were people who were against Islam and only thought of their own interests.
It should be noted here that the Egyptian army, which was the main actor of the coup, is not just an army like the army of every country. The Egyptian army is located all over the country and controls a large part of Egypt's economy. The army has many companies and is busy with commerce. Since Egypt is economically dependent on foreign powers, the military cannot be expected to go beyond the US's word. For this reason, military coups in Egypt have continued in line with the request of the USA.
The first president, Mohammed Morsi, who was brought to power by the people with free elections in Egypt, was overthrown by a military coup on 3 July 2013. Pro-American collaborators were not satisfied with the many appointments made by Mohammed Morsi. For this reason, America's collaborators have removed Morsi from power by making a coup with the army led by Sisi. Unfortunately, this coup was also openly supported by the Salafi Nur party. This clearly shows that the Salafists are a pro-imperialist structure. When Sisi announced to the press that he had seized power, political and military figures such as al-Azhar Sheikh, the leader of the Egyptian Coptic Church, the head of his predecessor Nur Party, and the leader of the National Liberation Front were behind him. How these groups cooperate with the United States has been evident with their behavior.
The Muslim Brotherhood protested this coup in Egypt in Rabia and Nahda squares. However, more than 50 Morsi supporters were killed in the intervention of the military government against the protests. The Brotherhood paid a heavy price while continuing the demonstrations. As a result of the reaction to the coup, 1150 people, most of whom were supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood, lost their lives as a result of the intervention of the army with weapons. In these incidents, the number of people detained until the end of 2014 reached 42 thousand.
The Cairo Emergency Situations Court, under the control of the coup plotters, declared the Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist organization on 23 September 2013. Thus, the financial assets of the organization were confiscated. As a result, the assets of many of the leaders of the Brotherhood and more than 1000 associations were confiscated. People who are stated to be members of the Muslim Brotherhood in the public sector have been dismissed from their duties. Along with the overthrown President Mohammad Morsi, around 2000 members of the Muslim Brotherhood were arrested and punished on fabricated charges such as being an agent of foreign powers and operating against the interests of the country. These courts, taking into account the reports of defamation against the Muslim Brotherhood, sentenced Morsi and hundreds of others to death. However, Morsi died of a heart attack in a trial.
In this way, an attempt was made to discredit Islam and the Muslim Brotherhood in Egyptian society and world public opinion. After the Egyptian Court declared the Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist organization, Saudi Arabia and BEA in March 2014 and the US House of Representatives declared the Brotherhood Muslim organization as a terrorist organization in February 2016. All this is an indication of how the imperialist powers and their collaborators fear Muslims.
This is how the western imperialists acted together in the events of the Arab Spring. Other Islamic countries that cooperate with them are also partners in this sin. The coup caused immense damage to the Egyptian people and economy. Namely, Egypt's foreign debt, which was 50 billion dollars in 2015, increased to 131 billion dollars in 2020 under the rule of Sisi after the coup. After the military coup, a new constitution was prepared and entered into force after being approved in a referendum held on 14-15 January 2014, in which only 38% of the voters participated. With the formal election held, General Abdülfettah Sisi, the head of the putschist General Staff, became the new President. Sisi won the 2018 election and continued as the head of state. The relations between Egypt and the countries that took a stand against these coups have come to a conflict. One of them is Turkey. Because Turkey took a clear stance against the coup against Morsi and declared that Sisi was wrong. As a result, Egypt withdrew its ambassador in Ankara and declared the Turkish ambassador in Cairo persona non grata. At the end of this, Turkey withdrew its ambassador.
Today, Egypt is still ruled under the dictatorship of Sisi, and a government that fulfills every wish of the imperialist powers is displayed. However, this does not benefit the Egyptian people at all, only a certain elite are skimming this power. Of course, this will not continue. One day, the Muslim people will ask Sisi and his collaborator countries to account for this. Because everything is cyclical.
If a wound has touched you, a similar wound has touched that society. We rotate those days among people. This is so that Allah may know those who believe from you and take witnesses from you. Allah does not love the unjust. (Ali Imran, 3/140)
If we examine the events in Egypt from a more objective point of view, it is clear that the West does not like Islamic tendencies in Egypt. On the other hand, it is understood that they were very satisfied with Sisi's activities. Undoubtedly, the western intelligence officers did not like the Muslims to stay in power in Egypt, so they started uprising among the people and overthrew Morsi by influencing the army. Countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, which are partners of the West, left Egypt in a difficult situation economically and politically for the overthrow of Morsi. These countries, which are partners of the Western imperialists, have declared the Muslim Brotherhood terrorists. Under Sisi's rule, these countries opened the taps for aid to Egypt. Today, Sisi's government can only survive with the money of the West and its partners, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. At the end of this, Egypt will be unable to pay its debts and will have to pay its debts by selling its country to foreigners, as in previous centuries.
Colonel Gaddafi seized power in a military coup in 1969 in Libya. Gaddafi ruled Libya as one man for 42 years. He did not allow any oppositional action to be made against him and heavily suppressed them. Gaddafi preserved tribal life in Libya. He strengthened his own tribe, but left other tribes weak. Oil revenues, Libya's only income, were shared among a certain elite group. A small part of this revenue has been reflected to the public. All this explains why the Libyan people took to the streets against Gaddafi.
The popular movements that started in Tunisia spread to Libya as well. 17 February 2011 was declared the Day of Anger and the people revolted against Gaddafi. Gaddafi responded to these events in a bloody way. Although the demonstrators were not successful at first, the entire opposition united under the name of the National Transitional Council. This council was supported by the westerners, especially France. When it was understood that it was not possible for the opposition to overthrow Gaddafi alone and Gaddafi did not give up, it was thought that it should be done with the United Nations. The United Nations Trustworthy Council decided to overthrow Gaddafi. With this decision, the United Nations intervened in Libya. NATO-affiliated planes, especially France, bombarded Libya. In the face of this, Gaddafi could not stand and his own castle, Tripoli, fell into the hands of the opposition. Gaddafi was also captured and killed by the opposition in Sirte, the city where he was born. This paved the way for Libyan oil to be shared by western states.
Gaddafi did not establish an institutional structure in the country during his 42-year dictatorship. There are many tribes and city structures in the country. These are liberals, nationalists, Salafist groups, the Muslim Brotherhood and local elements. The army and the police are not enough to maintain the order of the society. For this reason, militia forces can run around the country.
After Gaddafi, many governments were established in Libya and they could not provide stability in the country. On February 14, 2011, a new person named General Haftar appeared on the field. Haftar was a schoolmate of Gaddafi and an officer who participated in the coup with him. However, he fell out with Gaddafi and took refuge in the USA. Haftar worked with the CIA in the state of Virginia. With the beginning of the events in Libya, it was put on the field with the support of the USA, France, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia in order to prevent the forming of an Islamic government in Libya. Haftar started a military movement with the support he received from these countries and took control of a large part of the country. He established the Tobruk-based House of Representatives.
Today, Libya is divided into 4 parts. Clashes and armed actions continue between these parts. While the Libyan people are experiencing dark days with these actions, the oil of the country is being plundered by other western countries, especially France. Libya has no power to intervene in this. It is clear that Libya was deliberately brought into this situation. In other words, for Libya, the Arab spring has turned from being spring to winter.
The Arab Spring, which started in the last days of 2010, also spread to Morocco. However, the demonstrations were prevented before they turned into any conflict. The movement of Tawhid and Islah originating from the Muslim Brotherhood in Morocco had a wide area of influence. The protests of this movement compelled Moroccan King Mohammed VI to make some reforms. Accordingly, parliamentary, government and presidential institutions will be strengthened, human rights and individual social freedoms will be expanded, and the roles of political parties will be strengthened.
Against these reform proposals of the king, the Movement for Unity and Islah made the following statement: We, too, took to the streets as the Movement for Unity and Islah. Our aim in taking to the streets was not a bloody revolution, but to change the Moorish through reform, to get the people to participate more in the administration. Although it was not at the desired level, the King took some steps in this direction. So we stopped the demonstrations. Most of our people now thinks that change must happen through amendment.
As a result of the agreement reached between the movement and the King, the constitutional amendments were accepted with 98.5% of the votes in the 2011 referendum. After the 2016 elections, the king gave the task of forming the government to Abdullah Benkiran, the leader of the Justice and Development party, which received the most votes, and the prime minister for the last 5 years. Benkiran's efforts to form a coalition did not yield results, and the King gave the task of forming a government to Sadettin Osmaniye, President of the National Council of the Justice and Development Party. Sadettin Osmaniye formed a 6-party coalition government. Osmaniye announced that the reforms of previous government would continue.
Most of the population of Bahrain is Shia. For this reason, the countries that supported the Arab Spring remained indifferent to this country. However, in order to suppress the uprising of the Bahraini people who took to the streets on February 14, 2011, Saudi King Abdullah sent tanks to the capital of this country on February 27, and the uprising was suppressed. The resistance and struggle of the people here no longer attracts anyone's attention.
Yemen is one of the poorest countries in the world. On February 11, 2011, the people revolted against the rule of Ali Abdullah Saleh, who ruled the country for 33 years with the effect of the Arab Spring. After many complex political, military and social developments, Salih resigned on February 27, 2012.
Opposition forces in Yemen are known as the Houthis. Ali Abdullah Saleh demonstrated and displayed a very harsh attitude against the rioting Houthis. In the demonstration held in Sana'a on March 14-18, 2011, 50 people died. This harsh intervention caused a difference of opinion in the regime, and as a result, General Ali Muhsin, the commander of the Northern Region and the 1st Armored Brigade, left the regime and joined the Houthis.
Ali Abdullah Saleh left his presidency and went first to Saudi Arabia and then to America. He handed over the task to his deputy, Abd Rabbuh Mansur al-Hadi. However, the new president, Mansur al-Hadi, was not successful against the Houthis, who had reached a large militia force under the name of the People's Committees. The Houthis captured the northern city of Amran in Sana'a on 9 June 2011. On August 18, 2011, thousands of Houthi supporters took over the streets and avenues in the capital Sana'a by demonstrating against the government. Unable to resist these developments, Mansur al-Hadi reached an agreement with the Houthi and other political parties. With this decision called the National Partnership Agreement, it was tried to stop the movements.
However, the USA did not like this situation. It was requested that the events and the instability of Yemen continue. For this, the UN was activated and studies for a new Constitution were started. On January 19, 2015, clashes started again between the Houthis and the state forces. As a result, the Houthis seized the Presidential Palace and the residence of the President al-Hadi. Thus, the capital Sana'a completely passed into the hands of the Houthis. President al-Hadi has crossed into South Yemen. After that, the movements in Yemen ceased to be a militia conflict. Today, Yemen is indeed experiencing a civil war. The USA intervenes in this civil war by using Saudi Arabia and bombs are rained down on the regions where is in the hand of the opposition. Saudi Arabian planes are constantly bombing Yemen to support al-Hadi's militias settled in South Yemen and to retake Sana'a.
Omar al-Bashir was in power in Sudan when the Arab spring broke out. Al-Bashir had managed to weather the wave of the Arab spring. In those days, it was claimed in the foreign press that 200 people died in the demonstrations, which were tried to be portrayed as a rebellion started by female students. However, these were not enough to overthrow al-Bashir. Because there was a trust in al-Bashir in the society and the opposition could not reach a sufficient popular base.
This was not what the West wanted. In order to dominate Sudan, it was desired to be included in the Arab Alliance Front established by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. However, al-Bashir had a good time with the states that formed the alliance, but remained outside of this alliance. For this reason, it continued to be the target of the west.
By imposing sanctions on Sudan economy by west, it caused economic problems in the country. The gasoline shortage in Sudan had reached its peak and the prices of bread had also increased. Demonstrations against this were presented by the West as the "Bread Case". The movements against al-Bashir, which started in December 2018 with the involvement of the West in Sudan, resulted in the overthrow of the al-Bashir administration with a coup on 11 April 2019. As a result of the negotiations between the Temporary Military Council and the Freedom Change Forces Alliance, the constitutional declaration that was agreed upon was signed on 17 August 2019 and the transition period, which was expected to last 39 months, officially started. Later, the Military Provisional Council was dissolved and the Sovereignty Council was established in its place. The chairman of the council, General Burhan, took his oath on August 21, 2019. After that, Abdullah Hamdak is appointed as Prime Minister on 21 August 2019. On September 5, 2019, Hamdak announced his new cabinet. Sudan is currently governed by the Sovereignty Council.
The events described as the second wave of the Arab Spring that shook the Middle East and affected Sudan, Algeria, Lebanon and Iraq in 2018 and 2019. After the turmoil in the region, the wave that displaced the governments in Lebanon and Iraq is still alive with the demand for radical change, especially in Iraq. The security, administrative, economic, health, social and infrastructure problems that emerged after the invasion of the USA in 2003 deepened when the terrorist organization ISIS took control of almost one third of the country's territory in 2014. The culture of protest has turned into a permanent phenomenon in the country where there is no adequate solution to the problems. This situation is not a sign of hope for the future, and further reinforces the current instability.
In the first half of 2011, the "Iraqi Revolution" protests started, in which large masses were easily organized over social media with demands such as corruption, unemployment, inadequacy of state services, security problems and the discomfort felt for the US presence in the country. The protests in the provinces such as Baghdad, Basra, Mosul, Kirkuk, Anbar and Zikar were an important test for the government and local administrators led by Nuri al-Maliki, who came to power after a long bargaining after the 2010 elections.
The killing of a large number of demonstrators in response to the violent protests held on Friday, February 25, 2011, known as the day of anger, eight months before the US withdrawal from the country, turned into an outburst of anger. So much so that 23 people were killed in the protests in Fallujah, where one of the biggest conflicts took place.
Despite the calls of many of the country's leading clergy, such as Ayatollah Ali es-Sistani, to end the protests, the fact that many politicians left the country due to the concerns of the rising momentum in the demonstrations was considered as an effort to protect themselves rather than the demands of the street. As a matter of fact, the Prime Minister of the time, Maliki, admitted that the officials who went abroad should stay in the country and struggle and seek answers to the demands of the society. Maliki, who made moves such as cutting his own salary and starting food aid for the elderly and the poor, stated that the government's programs would be revised in the next 100 days. However, his claims that Saddam Hussein's supporters were behind the events and that arrests were made in some places under this accusation destroyed the reform expectations.
The "Arab Spring", which overthrew the regimes in countries such as Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia and Libya and triggered the ongoing civil war in Syria, could not ensure the resignation of the government led by the sectarian Shiite leader Maliki, and the amendment of the constitution written under the leadership of the USA. In addition, the failure of the promised reforms had an effect that increased the anger of the streets.
In Iraq, where radical changes were seen with the US invasion in 2003, the Shiite leader Maliki, who came to power in 2006, restricted the political representation of Sunnis, punished Sunnis by reducing the investments in the regions where they lived. The inability to take security measures against the terrorism deepened the crisis of trust in the Sunni society towards the state.
Especially in 2012, the raiding of the house of former Iraqi Finance Minister Rafi Isavi, one of the Sunni leaders in Fallujah, by Maliki's special forces was a start for the events. Again, the dismissal of former Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister, Sunni politician Salih al-Mutlaq, who criticized Maliki for his tendency to become Saddam, and the death sentence of the Vice President, Sunni leader Tariq al-Hashimi, escalated the social tension. Thus, at the end of 2012, the anger accumulated in the Sunni society sparked violent protests against Maliki in Mosul, Saladin, Kirkuk, Anbar and Diyala, where Sunnis live intensely. The protests continued in the first half of 2013 and received support from Shiite leaders such as Muqtada al-Sadr, In April, Maliki's security forces raided the Sunni protest camps in Hawija, killing 42 people. The declaration of jihad by the Sunni tribes mobilized after these protests, in which more than two hundred people lost their lives, so the Sunnis distanced from the state, but also made it easier for ISIS to find supporters in Sunni regions.
Maliki, who deepened the social fault lines due to his sectarian rhetoric, deputized for the Ministries of Defense and Interior due to his eagerness to control the security bureaucracy in the last term of his prime ministry. The security gap in Iraq provided a great opportunity to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Damascus (ISIS). On the other hand, due to Maliki's sectarian policies, there were even demands for autonomous regions in Sunni-dominated places such as Mosul, Anbar and Saladin. As a matter of fact, after ISIS took over Mosul in June 2014, the Iraqi army fled the city and ISIS took control of almost a third of the country. Despite the statements of the USA that the region will be the "beacon of democracy" after the occupation, the separatist administration in Iraq, the bad experiences after the 2003 invasion and the developments in Syria have turned the country into a shelter for ISIS.
One of the demands in the "Arab Spring" protests of 2011 was the expulsion of the United States from the country. However, at the end of 2011, it was understood that it was not possible to get rid of ISIS without the support of the USA, which had withdrawn its soldiers from the country. As a matter of fact, the country was able to achieve victory against the terrorist organization with the fight against ISIS, which destroyed the cities where mostly Sunnis lived, for about four years by the coalition forces led by the USA. However, the Sunni society, which was heavily suppressed in politics and social life after 2003, was further intimidated by ISIS and the culture of protest turned into a culture of fear. In addition, the differentiation of social and political orientation in the Sunni regions, where the population migrated and demographic change was experienced, revealed the culture of militarization.
In the summer of 2015, Sunni regions faced the destruction of ISIS. In addition, protests related to basic public services, especially power cuts, in cities with a Shiite population in the southern and central parts of the country, especially in Baghdad, mobilized the streets. Although the protests that put Prime Minister of the time, Haydar al-Abadi, in a difficult situation and that re-emerged at regular intervals, are seen as basic daily life demands, they are a reflection of the protest culture. As a matter of fact, similar protests, which turned into an environment of violence and chaos in Basra in 2018, were one of the important reasons that removed Abadi from his seat. Because Ayatollah Sistani withdrew his support from Abadi because Abadi did not fulfill his calls for reform to meet the demands of the street.
Iraq has witnessed a war of influence between Iran and the USA after ISIS. The society in Iraq had the chance to settle outstanding accounts with the government again in October 2019. The protests, organized on social media without a leader and centered in Tahrir Square in the capital Baghdad, with demands such as unemployment, corruption, inadequacy of public services and the resignation of the government, spread to many parts of the country, especially Baghdad and the southern provinces. In particular, the fact that the Shiites took to the streets and challenged the Shiite-dominated political order created a shock effect. As a matter of fact, although it was not successful in the first wave of the "Arab Spring", the latest protests have removed Prime Minister Adil Abdul Mahdi from his seat.
In addition, the nationalist, supra-sectarian and sovereignty discourse that emerged in the protests, where anger against Iran's influence in the country and Tehran-backed Iraqi militia groups came to the fore, is similar to the emphasis on honor and freedom in the "Arab Spring". Due to the disproportionate violence of the security forces and militias, more than six hundred protesters were killed and countless activists were assassinated during the protests. Considering some demands of the protesters, such as changing the election law and holding early elections, after the head of the National Intelligence Agency Mustafa al-Kazimi, who is not affiliated with political parties, became prime minister at the end of long negotiations, it shows that the expectations of the street cannot be ignored any longer.
According to the World Transparency Organization's Corruption Perceptions Index, youth unemployment has reached 30% in Iraq, which ranks 168th out of 180 countries. Since 2004, approximately 450 billion dollars of public funds have evaporated in Iraq, where 22% of the population of 40 million have a monthly income of less than $60 and where approximately 3 million people cannot meet their daily food needs. Considering the fact that foreign personnel dominate the oil sector instead of university graduate Iraqi youth in Iraq, which has the world's fourth largest oil reserves, income inequality, excessive wealth of a small group, and the inability to properly meet even simple public services such as electricity and water cuts, it will turn out to be right the reaction of the street.
It is difficult to say that it has been successful in changing the quota-based system established after the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the "Arab Spring" that displaced the dictators. Although the demand for change in the recent protests, in which hundreds of people died, displaced the government, there was no light on the horizon that the country would emerge from the turbulence caused by the Iran-US rivalry and get rid of the Iranian influence. However, as seen in the last wave, it can be said that the street will not give up on its rightful demands and the effects of the "Arab Spring" will continue. It would be deceptive to expect that the protest culture will settle in the society and that the trust problem of the people will easily end with the statements or pressures of the politicians.
First of all, this unstable situation in Iraq works for the western imperialists. Thus, they can control movements in other countries in this geography through Iraq. The restlessness and insecurity of the region serves the goals of imperialism in every respect.
The events in Syria started on March 15, 2011 in the city of Deraa. The popular uprising, which started on March 15, 2011, when a group of primary school students wrote on the school wall, "O doctor, now it's your turn," referring to the leader of the regime, Bashar Assad, soon spread to many parts of the country. While the number of thousands of people who took to the streets demanding reform against the pressure and corruption of the Assad family and close circles, the demonstrations spread to other provinces of the country in a short time. At that time, the Assad regime, which declared the civilians who wanted a change of power with peaceful demonstrations as "terrorists", mobilized its soldiers and security forces to suppress the demonstrations.
This move of the regime led to the peaceful public demonstrations turning into civil war. Armed conflicts have been taking place between the Assad regime forces and the military opposition groups gathered under the name of the Free Syrian Army (FSA) since 2012.
Western powers state that Assad is a dictator and that he must pass into democracy. But what are their main goals? However, Syria is trying to be destroyed by a civil war today. Usually in Syria today, the militants of Al Qaeda and similar organizations are making random explosions and they want to terrorize the inhabitants of the city in their own way. In particular, the houses of Christian, Armenian, Shiite and Alevi people are raided, and those who are deemed to be pro-Assad are killed, executed in the squares, hanged or taken away. The public now hates the Free Syrian Army and the other al-Qaeda or radical armed militants who come from many foreign countries and there are thousands of them. Because those who say they take up arms for democracy and freedom do nothing but kill.
As in the case of Libya, western countries do not want stability in Syria. Western powers preferred that Syria be confused and dragged into civil war when necessary. Because such a Syria is much more important and necessary for the regional plans of the West. Because the West is planning to realize its projects towards Turkey, Iraq, Lebanon and finally Iran through an unstable Syria. There have been 100 years of civil war, fighting and turmoil in this geography, but Syria has never experienced such a terrible event.
When the events in Syria started, there were no ISIS, Nusra and similar terrorist organizations in the country. As soon as the events started and in the following process, militants from all over the world joined these organizations and started to take action. ISIS was established as a result of such a process and became the strongest group thanks to the regional and international aid and support provided. Thanks to this power, he occupied many villages and towns along the Turkish border as well as Raqqa. Everywhere it occupied and in every conflict with the Syrian army, thousands of civilians and soldiers were killed in the most brutal way. ISIS, which presents itself as the truest Muslim, says nothing about the main enemy of Islam, Zionist Israel and the imperialist west and their anti-Islamic collaborators.
Western countries always show their hypocritical character, but no one learns from it. The memory of the Middle East geography is always weak. Because it is weak, western countries keep reading what they know. Because they can always find people they can buy from. The Arab Spring did not visit the countries ruled by backward, fanatical, outdated Kings, Emirs and Sheikhs. In fact, these Kings, Emirs and Sheikhs were very satisfied with the Arab Spring. They gave billions of dollars to the people who rebelled in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Iraq, Yemen and Syria.
On August 24, 2016, Turkey launched its military intervention in Syria. Turkey on September 4, 2016 recaptured the lands occupied by ISIS on the Syrian border. Turkey captured all villages belonging to the YPG in and around Shrapnos. In 2017, Turkey, together with the FSA, took important cities such as Jarablus, al-Bab and Dobi from the hands of ISIS. On March 27, 2017, Turkey announced that the Euphrates Shield operation was successful and the operation ended with the decision of the MGK. On January 20, 2018, the FSA, trained by the Turkish Armed Forces, launched the military movement called Olive Branch in Afrin district of Aleppo province.
Iran and Lebanese Hezbollah came to the aid of Assad, whose fall from power was only a matter of time at the end of 2012. Since the spring of 2013, the regime started to balance against the opposition. With Russia's participation in the war at the end of September 2015, the course of the civil war turned in favor of the regime. Thus, the regime regained control of most of the lands it had lost through intense attacks and blockades.
Hundreds of thousands of civilians lost their lives in the civil war, in which United Nations (UN) officials pointed out that war crimes such as using chemical weapons, starving the people, deportation, blockade, arbitrary arrest and torture were committed. In the country, whose population was estimated to be around 22-23 million before the civil war, 6.6 million Syrians had to leave their country. More than 3.5 million of these people took refuge in Turkey. According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), 6.7 million people have been internally displaced, while at least 14 million civilians in Syria are in need of humanitarian assistance. The UN's statement on September 24, 2021, stating that the number of confirmed deaths in the Syrian civil war is approximately 350 thousand, and the actual figure is much higher than this, once again revealed that the civilians pay the heaviest price of the civil war in Syria.
Documenting the rights violations against civilians in Syria, the Syrian Human Rights Network (SNHR) shared its report on rights violations and civilian casualties committed between March 2011 and March 2022. In this report, it was noted that the Assad regime tortured and killed at least 14,449 of the hundreds of thousands of people it had arbitrarily detained. According to opposition sources, the Assad regime forces are still detaining about 400,000 people.
In the report, which stated that health facilities were targeted at least 869 times by the conflicting parties during the civil war, it was stated that at least 869 health workers were killed. According to the report, at least 1,597 schools were attacked in the civil war, 1419 of them by the Assad regime and Russia. During this period, at least 711 media workers, including 4 people serving AA, were killed.
The regime, which did not see deterrent reactions from the international community, ignored the United Nations Security Council's (UNSC) Resolution 2254, which envisages a political solution, and constantly stood for a military solution. In the decision numbered 2254, which was unanimously approved in December 2015, an emergency ceasefire across Syria and the initiation of political negotiations in parallel; A call was made to establish a "unity government" within two years and then hold elections.
Despite Turkey's warnings, the USA's support to the terrorist organization YPG/PKK in Syria did not cease. US Special Forces continued to provide armed training to YPG/PKK terrorists east of the Euphrates. US soldiers, who provided training to hundreds of YPG/PKK members in the provinces of Hasakah and Deir ez-Zor on the use of various weapons, conducted joint armed exercises with the terrorist organization in the west of Deir ez-Zor province on February 18 and December 7, 2021. The USA gave 1000 trucks of weapons to these terrorists.
While the Peace Spring Operation, which Turkey started on October 9, 2019, continued, it made separate agreements with the USA and Russia. Promising that the YPG/PKK will withdraw from the area 30 kilometers deep from the Turkish border, the USA has not kept its promise yet.
Russia, on the other hand, has committed that as of October 23, 2019, Russian military police and regime forces will enter the Syrian side of the Turkey-Syria border, which is outside the Peace Spring Operation zone, to ensure that YPG/PKK terrorists are removed 30 kilometers from the Turkey-Syria border with their weapons. The Russians promised that terrorists from the terrorist organization YPG/PKK would be expelled from Manbij and Tel Rifat with their weapons. However, the terrorist organization YPG/PKK continues its occupation by not withdrawing from the determined borders and regions despite the said agreements.
At the United Nations Security Council meetings, Russia and China, who vetoed their favor 16 times in total, applied for this right 6 times in the sessions on chemical weapons attacks, again in a way to protect the regime. As a result of the vetoes of Russia and China, the prosecution of the Assad regime was prevented.
Following the new agreement between Turkey and Russia on March 5, 2020, the ceasefire in Idlib is largely maintained. There has been no change in the areas of dominance in the country since that date.
According to the map measurements of the Syrian Ej Jusur Research Center, Russian and Iranian-backed Assad regime forces currently dominate around 63 percent of the country. About 11 percent of the country's territory is in the hands of military opposition and anti-regime armed groups. While the US-backed terrorist organization YPG/PKK occupies a quarter of the country's territory, ISIS terrorists are dispersed and constantly changing places in the deserts of Homs, Deir ez-Zor and Raqqa.
The Arab spring is a struggle for freedom and democracy in some Arab countries against some governments supported by the West and given up by the West. No matter how this struggle ends, it will never be allowed to end in favor of the Muslim peoples, as some have imagined. Because there is a proven rule: If westerners are involved, falsehood always wins! Superstition is doomed to extinction.
Say the truth has come and falsehood has vanished. Of course, falsehood is doomed to perish. (Isra, 17/81)
Because the West always finds collaborators among Muslims, buys them, makes them do the most disgusting and disgraceful jobs, pays the material and moral price and throws them aside when the job is done. As in the events of the Shah of Iran, Adnan Menderes, Saddam, Mubarak, Ben Ali, Abdullah Saleh and Gaddafi. Because no one learns, there will always be others next. It is certain that those who sell their souls to the devil will sooner or later eat the devil's stake.
Sectarian debates are very dangerous for the Middle East. For example, half of the Iraqi Turkmen, who are Turkish by kinship, are Shia and the other half are Sunni. For example, Iranian Azeris of Turkish origin in the context of kinship are Shiites. For this reason, it is very dangerous to be dragged into a fight with provocative rhetoric in a geography with a complex sectarian and ethnic structure. Saudi Arabia has spent and is spending billions of dollars for the sectarian divisions that were provoked in Iraq and everywhere after the Arab Spring. Today, there are very large and powerful circles in Arab and Islamic countries that make special efforts to turn these differences into enmity. Throughout history, internal and external forces that took pleasure from the pain of this fight will never give up on their habits. Blood motivates and excites them. That's why murderers programmed to kill and blood, when they can't find the flame or the Shiite, they strangle each other, as in Libya. As in Somalia, whose population is 100% Sunni, Sunni people keep killing each other here. Because the Saudis who believe in Wahhabi ideology and their friends and allies want it so.
After World War II, in a secret Masonic meeting attended by the Masonic administrators of America, former CIA director Allen Dulles explained the system they used to exploit societies as follows:
America will use all its power and money to deceive the people. The human brain is quickly affected by changes. We will place chaos in the minds of the people and replace real values with fake ones. Gradually, step by step, we will witness the extinction of the nations that have ever existed. Cinema, theater and literature will be reduced to appealing to the lowest human emotions. We will place sex, violence and betrayal in the minds of the people. We will corrupt all governments, trample morality and honor. We will make cruelty, lies, drug and alcohol addiction indispensable elements of life. Generation after generation we will weaken them. Youth will be our tool. We will bring them down with corruption.
These were decided at the beginning of the Cold War years and this decision was included in official US documents. The Masonic rulers of the USA have used this method in all the countries they have influenced to date. With this method, they collapsed the Soviet Union. With this method, they created the process called the Arab Spring. At the end of this, the world has entered into an environment of violence, unstable, restless and insecure. The end of this is the outbreak of the 3rd World War. It is difficult to determine the winner of this war. Accounts at home may not fit the market. Ultimately, it is Allah who decides.
Don't overwork yourself. Everything happens by the will of Allah. What Allah does not want will not hit you, and what He commands will not miss you. (Hazrat Omar (ra))
As Muslims who believe in Allah and his destiny, we can say:
"Let's see what our God does, whatever He does are good things."
AKP, Mission in the Arab Spring, Hüsnü Mahalli, People's Bookstore, Istanbul, 2016
Illuminati, Turgut Gürsan, Pegasus Publications, Istanbul, 2017
Middle East Policies of Global and Regional Powers, Arab Spring and Aftermath, Tarık Oğuzlu, Ceyhun Çiçekçi, Nobel Publishing, Ankara, 2021
ORSAN, Middle East Studies Center, orsam.org.tr
Religious Destroyers in Religious Repair Case, Ahmet Davutoğlu, Bedir Publications, Istanbul, 1997
SDAM, Center for Strategic Thinking and Analysis, sdam.org.tr
The Middle East at the Wolves Table, Muammer Yılmaz, Ezr Publishing,
The Civil War in Syria Left 11 Years Behind, Ethem Emre Özcan, aa.com.tr
For your Comments and Criticism: email@example.com
The Arab Spring
Publication Date: 30.11.2022