Throughout the history of humanity, societies have suffered many calamities such as earthquakes, epidemics, famines and wars. Today's epidemics, wars and earthquakes are neither calamities peculiar to modern societies, nor will they end as long as people live. Some of these calamities are physical laws of God, others are social laws, valid at all times and in every society. These laws, called Sunnetullah, will continue to enforce their laws until the Day of Judgment.

The causes of disasters on earth are examined and interpreted by people. Especially today, scientists make comments about these disasters and put forward theories about why disasters occur. However, these theories are always incomplete in terms of reflecting the absolute truth. Most of the scientists have a completely materialistic mentality when searching for the causes of events in nature. However, in the face of some events, they have no words to say and they are helpless to explain. Generally, scientists with a secular mindset think that the cause of everything is another material event. They also apply this approach to disasters in nature. However, it is very difficult to say that they were successful in this regard. Because these people do not know the power of Allah and they do not recognize the phenomenon of destiny.

The religion of Islam looks at disasters very differently. Opinions on this subject are based on the verses of the Qur'an and the hadiths of our Prophet (pbuh). This approach is the real understanding of science and expresses the absolute truth.


Islam's Understanding of Disaster

According to the Islamic belief, every creature in the universe was created by Almighty Allah based on a certain order, purpose and wisdom. Every phenomenon in nature has been ordained to a certain extent by Allah.

“Beware that We have created everything according to a destiny.” (The Moon, 54/49)

Within this divine system, man was created in a special way. He has been given many talents such as intelligence. Information was conveyed to him through spiritual means (such as revelation, inspiration, etc.) and he was explained how he should perceive the phenomena in nature. Allah explained the system He established in nature and humans with verses and wanted people to act according to these principles. Otherwise, they were told what they would encounter.

Man must first know why he was created, what his most basic duties on earth are, and he must direct his life accordingly. If he does not do this, he should know that many disasters and calamities will happen to him. Because people are responsible for their actions. If a person does not regulate his behavior with the mind and will he has, he should expect that many disasters can happen to him.

According to Islam, what happens to people is the result of what they did with their own hands.

“Any misfortune that befalls you is because of what you have earned with your own hands. However, Allah still forgives most of them.” (The Consultation, 42/30)

But people who do not have this consciousness are the majority in society. Therefore, societies are sometimes punished with disasters by Allah. Although these disasters seem to be the result of material mistakes, in reality, they are matters that Allah has ordained for those people. This subtle difference should be thoroughly read and evaluated. This is real science.



Humanity has witnessed many earthquake events throughout history. Although the intensities are different, an earthquake event is encountered almost every day in some part of the world. Earthquakes, which are extremely frightening, short-lived and of high intensity, also occur frequently. Islam states that these earthquakes will be continuous and that the frequency and intensity of earthquakes will increase until the end of the world.

These earthquakes are the will of Allah. Islam regards this as destiny and states that these earthquakes are written before in the Lawh-i Mahfuz (Protected Tablet) and they occur when the time comes.

“There is no calamity that has happened on earth and befallen you, unless it was written in a book before We created it. Surely this is easy for Allah.” (Al-Hadid, 57/22)

The disaster of earthquakes is that it harms people. Otherwise, the earthquake is a natural event and will occur when the time comes. Is it possible for people not to be harmed by the earthquake and the earthquake not to turn into a disaster? In this regard, Islam invites people to be honest, to do the right thing, not to violate people's rights, and not to deceive people. If people do not follow these recommendations, it is certain that sooner or later disasters will come.

The reason why the recent earthquakes in our country have turned into disasters is because people disobey the order of Islam's "Be true!". Because there is scientific data for building earthquake resistant buildings. If we act against this information, we will turn the earthquake into a disaster and cause people and property to perish. Those who do the buildings wrong, those who allow them, those who do not control them are primarily responsible for this disaster. These people are responsible for deliberately killing people and deliberately destroying property.

They may not be held accountable for this in this world, but they will be questioned by Allah in the Hereafter and they will be punished accordingly. Today, those who carry out these unjust acts with bribery and sake will be held responsible for violating the rights of people and will be held to account. God's justice is infallible. Muslims believe this, and that is the absolute truth.

Those who forget or do not believe these facts see nothing but worldly interests. For this reason, they harm people by constructing buildings with all kinds of tricks, deceptions and wrong works. However, they will not get away with what they do. Sooner or later, they will pay for it in this world and in the hereafter.

Believers who lost their lives in earthquakes and other similar disasters are considered martyrs. Our Prophet (pbuh) foretells this in a hadith. Those who survive disasters should seek refuge in Allah through prayer and supplication. He must see that the power and the will of Allah Almighty are unlimited. Thus, he should reconsider his faith and turn to the right. He should think that what happened to him is a test. He should not lose hope in Allah for the elimination of his harms. Because such harm is a test of Muslims. He should not forget that he will be rewarded with the mercy of Almighty Allah as a result of events such as disaster, illness and distress that befall him in this world of testing.

In the 286th verse of the chapter of al-Baqara, Allah invites His servants to turn to Him in these situations. It should not be forgotten that He is the one who created us. It is His will and mercy that nourishes, shelters and sustains us. People should not forget that they will be tested in such situations.

“Helpless, We will test you with a little fear, a little hunger, and a little loss of goods, lives and fruits. Give good news to those who show patience!” (Baqara, 2/155)

Our Prophet (pbuh) informs that every incident that hurts a believer and gives him trouble will be a means of purification and raising his rank in the hereafter. This news is a great consolation for believers.

“Nothing bad can happen to a Muslim, including pain, tiredness, sickness, grief, or even a distress that overwhelms him, so that some of his sins are not expiated.” (Hadith)

The mercy of Almighty Allah towards His servants is limitless. This issue is expressed in many verses of the Qur'an. For this reason, believers must face difficult times with patience and fortitude. It should mobilize to help those who are exposed to calamities wherever they are in the world, and strive to reduce the suffering and heal the wounds caused by disasters. This is a command from Allah to people.

Today, unfortunately, we also find that in our society. We see that new constructions are still not done in accordance with scientific data. Rusty irons are used in construction. However, iron that stays in the rain for days gets rusty and if these rusty irons are used in construction, the rust works inside the iron, reducing its strength. This causes the building to become rotten. These are still ignored and uncontrolled today. The quality of the cements used is uncertain. There is no sound control in this regard. This means that when there is a new severe earthquake in our country, the same disaster will happen to us again. The future of that day is clear from today. Unfortunately, people do not learn from disasters. However, the account of this will one day be brought in front of those who do it and those who give permission and do not control it. This is a really difficult account. Neither money nor children nor authorities will save these people in the apocalypse. On that day, only people who come with a sound heart and have good deeds will be saved. O mankind, open your eyes, use your mind and protect yourself from doing wrong. It is your faith and good deeds that will save you tomorrow in the hereafter. Otherwise you will be disappointed.

“By the time, all people are truly frustrated. Except for those who believe, do righteous deeds, advise each other the truth and advise patience.” (Al-Asr, 103/1,2,3)



One of the most common disasters that people have been exposed to throughout history is famine. Famines have caused people to migrate from one place to another throughout history. In famines, states collapsed and people lost their sovereignty and came under the yoke of others.

It occurs as a result of not being at the desired level of grain and vegetable production due to famine, lack of rain, invasion of agricultural products by various insects and organisms. Humans do not have the power to regulate the rain in nature. This is under the power and will of Allah. If He wishes, He can increase the rain or decrease it. Nor do we know when Almighty Allah will make it rain. Although atmospheric events can be partially detected a few days ago, this does not mean that people can influence the events in the atmosphere. In other words, events in the atmosphere happen only by the will and will of Almighty Allah.

What is the person's responsibility in this situation? In this regard, it is to organize life according to the orders and prohibitions of Allah. If we do not comply with this, we may be destined for a famine disaster. Because man suffers corruption in land and sea by the works of his own hands.

“Corruption has arisen on land and sea because of what the hands of men have earned, so that they may taste some of what they have done. It is hoped that they will return to the Truth.” (Ar-Rum, 30/41)

Almighty Allah can cut off the rain and direct harmful microbes and organisms to the fields and plants in order to punish them for sins committed with their own hands. All this reduces food production. This means scarcity.

People should be cautious in this regard, and food consumption should be limited with the thought that famine may occur at any moment. Not all of the food should be consumed when it is in abundance, some of it should be stored in such a way that it does not spoil. It is the responsibility of those who manage these societies. Managers who do not pay attention to this will be responsible for their negligence in case the people encounter such a disaster. These responsibilities will also be questioned by Allah in the hereafter. Because the duty of the people who manage the society is to see the future and take precautions. Those who do not do this, spend the day in vain and it means that they have not acted in accordance with Islam. They will pay for it themselves. Because God does not like waste.

In this regard, Prophet Yusuf (as) spent seven years of harvest sparingly as the president in Egypt, and dealt with the subsequent seven-year famine without turning it into a disaster that harmed people. This behavior is an example to all people. This example is a mercy from Allah to mankind. Because the example of Yusuf (as) guides people on how to behave.

Today, many factors that trigger climate changes are put forward. Chief among these is the excessive emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In the factories, which are the basis of the industry, this carbon dioxide emission is very high. However, despite all the warnings, developed countries, especially the USA, refused to take measures. For them, precaution means extra expense. However, the most important thing for them is to make a lot of profit. Thus, people invite these disasters with their own hands. In fact, climate changes harm their own people as well, but their eyes are so dazzled by the love of money that they see nothing but money. As a result of all these, nature undergoes climate changes, which disrupts the order of nature. Climate change disrupts the order of phenomena such as rain, and increasing temperature causes the proliferation of some harmful organisms. Thus, the productivity of agriculture decreases. All this is leading humanity to famine.

Allah reveals that the negativities that people do with their own hands will cause mischief in the land and sea (Ar-Rum, 30/41). If people's actions are on the wrong path, things will progress in a negative way, as per the Sunnah of Allah. This negative progress is again by Allah's will and creation. However, people who do wrong deeds are responsible for this result. One day they will be asked to account for this responsibility. Because Allah's justice is absolute and it takes place whenever Allah wishes.



Human history has witnessed many epidemics. Plague epidemics affected countries for centuries and caused thousands of deaths. This epidemic, which occurs from time to time in all societies, has decreased with some precaution in our time. The flu epidemic of the last century also caused the death of millions of people. With the development of vaccines over time, the epidemic decreased. As a result of medical advances, epidemics are partially prevented by the development of new drugs and vaccines. However, new epidemics caused by unknown microbes can also threaten our world from time to time.

For example, the Corona epidemic caused by the Covid 19 microbe is one of them. It has caused the death and illness of millions of people around the world. However, since there was no information about this virus in the hands of people before, a vaccine and medicine could not be found. The vaccines determined in a short time could not defeat the epidemic, but after a while, after people became immune, the spread of the epidemic decreased.

This Corona epidemic shows people the power and will of Allah. It is an indication of how helpless a person is in the face of Allah's power and will. This epidemic is an event that requires people to repent of what they have done and embrace Islam. Some people agreed with this, but most did not. When medical professionals talk about the epidemic, they never mention the power and will of Allah. They made great words by sharing the little experimental information they had with people. However, these descriptions did not change the course of the epidemic. The microbe mutated at various times, constantly surprising.

Here scientists must admit the truth. Humans have made no significant contribution to the formation or prevention of this epidemic. Even the use of masks was previously not recommended by the organization World Healt and was said to be of no use. However, when the severity of the situation increased, all the known classical measures were revealed. Despite all this, the epidemic continued and carried on its effect.

Like all microbes, the Covid 19 microbe is a creature created by Allah. He fulfilled his duty by the command of Allah. He even hesitates about whether he fulfills this duty properly. Because this task has been given to him by Allah, and he is responsible for doing the microbe's duty properly. Positive scientists should also look at this event from this angle. Because the events in nature are not limited to the information they have determined through experiments. There are scientific facts far beyond their knowledge. Only scholars who have discovered this subject are aware of them. These scholars are the saint servants of God. They are informed about the inner side of the events. With this information, they try to gain Allah's consent.

The studies of positive scientists who do not accept spirituality certainly work for the protection of people. Treatments and vaccination studies in hospitals are works done and appreciated in this direction. However, it is also known that some pharmaceutical companies that seize the opportunity in such an environment put some drugs that are useless. These drugs have done more harm than good to patients and have affected the health of many people. Those who profited from this business were pharmaceutical companies that filled their coffers with money. This is wrong from the point of view of Islam. Here, too, there is a right dealing of people. When introducing drugs, they should be announced to people with all their reality and side effects. This has not been done. Although these were later admitted, many people were harmed by it.

Medical professionals have great responsibilities as stewards of human health. They should think carefully about the treatment methods and the effects of the drugs they use and share them with people. However, it is not easy to fight the effects of an unrecognized virus such as the corona epidemic. In this regard, many medical professionals have struggled with the methods they know, putting their own health at risk. In this epidemic, many doctors and nurses, as well as health professionals, unfortunately got sick and died.

Here, the responsibility of the medic is in his own work. If he believes in the correctness of his knowledge and does it with a sincere intention, he will not be held responsible before Allah. In this regard, if he has faith, a great reward will be written for him. If he does business for some material gain, it is certain that he will be held accountable for his responsibility. Because, according to a hadith, “Religion is sincerity.” For this reason, a person cannot be responsible for the consequences of using treatment methods that he/she sincerely knows to be correct.

People should know that God is the real healer. Because no matter what treatment method is applied, which drugs are used, recovery of the patient is only possible with Allah's permission. It is an occasion for the drugs that people use. Allah makes the medicine effective when He wishes, and provides it ineffective when He wishes. As a matter of fact, some of the patients using the same drug get better and some do not. It is important for doctors, first of all, to treat them with this awareness. Because man is primarily responsible for believing in Allah. Scientific responsibility comes later.

Unfortunately, it is very difficult to come across this way of thinking nowadays. Positive scientists believe that only their own reason and experience are absolutely correct. For this reason, it is forgotten what the effect of Almighty Allah is on events. Unfortunately, this situation will make man responsible in the hereafter. Because in many verses it is stated that the healing of people is only by Allah's will.

“When I am ill, He heals me.” (Al-Shuara, 26/80)

We send down verses in the Qur'an that are a source of healing and mercy for believers. It only increases the harm of the oppressors.” (Al-Isra, 17/82)


Fate and Disasters

Allah Almighty says in the 22nd verse of Surah Hadid in the Qur'an:

“There is no calamity on earth that has befallen you, unless it was written in a book before We created it. Surely this is easy for Allah.” (Al-Hadid, 57/22)

According to this verse, all disasters are predetermined and written in a book. Later, this disaster was realized. We call it divine destiny. In other words, the issues that Allah has determined about us beforehand will be created and implemented when the time comes. Here, we call the event of being written as fate, and the occurrence of it as an accident.

Nevevi (ks) says:

“The knowledge of accident and destiny is a secret that Allah has set aside for him, that with a veil that Allah has placed in front of him, Almighty Allah has closed him from human intellect and comprehension and from all kinds of means of ingenuity - as per his wisdom. What is obligatory for us is to stay in the place where the border is assigned to us and not to encroach on it. Allah has removed the knowledge of destiny from the realm. Unless Allah informs him, neither a prophet nor a nearest angel knew it. The secret of destiny will be revealed to people when they enter paradise. Allah knows best.”

When and how disasters such as earthquakes, famines and epidemics will occur before they occur are written in the Lawh-i Mahfuz (Protected Tablet). This matter is known in the sight of Allah. Our task is not to know when a disaster will strike, but to be vigilant against it. There will be earthquakes, we cannot stand against it. But we can build buildings as science predicts to reduce harm to humans. If we do not do this, then the consequences of the disaster that befell us will be what we have earned with our hands. There will be famines, but if we do not plant and save as science predicts, the consequences of the coming famine will be what we have earned by our hands. There will be epidemics. If we do not take precautions against possible epidemics as prescribed by medical science, the consequences will be that we have won it with our own hands. The verse (Al-Shura, 42/30) expresses this fact. In other words, the cause of all the disasters and negativities that befall us are our actions.

Theft, fraud, bribery, cruelty, injustice, lying, malice, prostitution, drinking and drug use have increased tremendously in our society. The people of such a society aim for the purpose of life, such as making money and getting rich by whatever means. They do all kinds of bad things to reach them. All these actions are against Allah's orders and prohibitions. For this reason, its punishment emerges as the damages of disasters. Those who do all kinds of evil and cruelty in violation of Allah's orders and prohibitions will definitely be punished for their actions in the hereafter tomorrow. Surely, Allah's justice does not fail.

However, righteous people with true faith can also die or be harmed in these calamities. When these people die, they become martyrs. This is a great grace of Allah. If he survives and suffers a loss, he will eventually reach Allah's mercy and grace, as he will be patient because of his faith and turn to God through prayer. That is, the believer is profitable in any case.

A Muslim's fortitude and patience in the face of events that befall him are instrumental in attaining eternal blessings. As a matter of fact, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, “How pleasant is the situation of the believer. Every situation is good for him and this situation is only for the believer. He is grateful when a beauty is given to him. This will be usefulness for him. When trouble comes to him, he is patient. That would be good for him.”

As it is repeatedly stated in many verses of the Qur'an, Allah's mercy and compassion towards His servants is unlimited. For this reason, a Muslim should not forget that in the world of testing he is in, events such as disasters, illnesses and troubles that befall him will eventually be rewarded with the mercy of Almighty Allah.


Extinction of Tribes by Disasters

In many verses of the Qur'an, tribes that perished as a result of natural disasters are mentioned.

“As a matter of fact, we caught every one of them red-handed for their sins. Some of them We sent gusts of wind, some of them caught a terrible sound, some of them we buried in the ground, and some of them drowned in water. Allah did not wrong them, they were wronging themselves.” (Al-Ankabut, 29/40)

“The situation of those who take friends other than Allah is like the situation of a spider that makes a nest for itself. However, the rottenest of houses is undoubtedly a spider's nest. I wish they knew." (Al-Ankabut, 29/41)

Those who did not follow the Prophet Noah (as) were destroyed by a severe storm and flood. It is told how those who associate partners with Allah are swallowed up in the waters that rise up to the mountains. However, believers escaped this disaster by taking shelter in Noah's Ark.

“However, they still denied him. So We saved him and those who were with him on the ship. We made them caliphs on earth. And We drowned those who disbelieved in Our verses. Look how was the end of those who were warned.” (Yunus, 10/73)

The people of Hud (as) ruthlessly punished weak people by throwing them from high places. It was the people who put out idolatry after Noah's Flood by worshiping the idols they had made. Being arrogant of their wealth, they denied Hud, the prophet sent to them. For this reason, Allah punished them and destroyed them. This destruction was caused by a violent hurricane. This hurricane lasted seven days and seven nights. This hurricane, which continued non-stop, first destroyed all the houses, buildings and gardens, and then destroyed the idols. Then the whole tribe was destroyed (Fussilat, 41/15-18). Only Hud (as) and the Muslims who followed him were saved.

“When our order came, we saved Hud and those who believed with him by a mercy from us. We also saved them from a severe torment. This was the people of Ad. They deliberately denied the verses of their Lord and rebelled against their prophets. They followed the orders of every tyrant who came to power.” (Hud, 11/58.59)

The people of Lut (as) went to such extremes in terms of bad deeds that they abandoned chaste life and threatened Hazrat Lut, who advised them. They have made incest and perverse relationships widespread, as well as acts such as waylaying, stingy, and gossiping. People of Lut, when the volcano called Vesuvius suddenly became active at night, the people of Lut were stoned en masse while they were asleep. Hazrat Lut and the believers who believed in him were informed beforehand and they were removed from that region and they were saved. This event is described in the verses of the Qur'an (Al-Araf, 7/80-84).

“We saved him and his family, not just his wife. Because she was one of those who stayed behind. We rained down a rain of torment on them. See how was the end of the sinners.” (Al-Araf, 7/83.84)

Salih (as) was sent to the people of Thamud as a prophet. However, the people of Thamud did not believe him. They continued all kinds of cruelty and evil, worshiped idols and killed the camel they wanted as a miracle. Thereupon, they deserved divine punishment. Finally, Salih (as) said to them, "Live for three more days, then you will perish" (Hud, 11/65). During these three days, the tribe of Thamud suffered many difficulties. Thereupon, they went to kill the Prophet Salih, but they could not succeed. Because Allah informed the Prophet Salih. He, too, left the city with his family and those who believed in him (Hud, 11/66). At the end of the third day, Allah Almighty turned all the fortified buildings upside down with the hand of Gabriel. Then his people caught a terrible voice (sahya). The wrongdoers were overtaken by a dreadful blast and they all died (Hud, 11/67). Their possessions and wealth could not protect them.

“A terrible scream caught them in the morning, too. What they were gaining did not negate any harm from them.” (Hijr, 15/83, 84)

There is a great lesson for people in all these events. Disasters show the eternity of Allah's majesty and power. It also shows how helpless we humans are. It makes you feel the ephemerality of your possessions and worldly life in seconds. In this respect, disasters have a great impact. However, most people continue to disbelieve. However, Allah is the absolute victor and the One who fulfills His orders.

“Surely, your Lord is the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.” (Al-Shuara, 26/159)

These events clearly explain the reasons for what happens to people. The fate of people who do not obey Allah's orders and prohibitions has always been bad and it will be bad from now on. It would be useful to consider today's disasters in this context. The Sunnah of Allah is unmistakable. What people sow, they will reap. The reasons for the disasters and troubles experienced today are the same. But we see that people do not learn from them. This means that people will be dealing with disasters frequently from now on. This will increase until the end of the world. Everyone will give an account of their deeds in the divine court that will be established after the Doomsday. Because Allah's justice does not fail and He does not go back on His word.



Throughout human history, human societies have faced many disasters and calamities. Even in the time of our Prophet (pbuh), various earthquakes, famines, epidemics and wars left people in a very difficult situation. Thousands of people lost their lives, along with many valuable Companions, in the Amevas taun that started in the time of Hazrat Omar (ra). A famine that occurred in the same year caused the people of Medina and its surroundings to struggle to survive under very difficult conditions.

Although the effects of disasters have been tried to be reduced with some precautions taken in the modern period, the possibility of calamities beyond human strength has not been eliminated. Although it is possible to take some precautions to build more earthquake-resistant houses, to take protective precautions against diseases or to increase the production of agricultural crops, it does not seem possible to get rid of disasters completely. Because if God wants to punish people for what they have earned with their own hands, no one can prevent it.

The way is clear against all kinds of material and spiritual disasters. This road is Sirat-i Mustakim (True Way). This way is to cling to Islam, to be just, to be moral and to have character. As a result of these, people need to do the right things by using their mind and knowledge. While constructing the buildings, one should act according to the correct information, and when choosing the ground, one should act according to the correct information. Buildings should be built on hard ground rather than soft ground. Houses should not be built on stream beds. However, those who only see financial gain and deceive people instead of eating halal will of course not comply with what we say. Where there is more profit, they will head there and build buildings without thinking that people and property will be destroyed in a later disaster. They will gild and decorate these buildings and sell them to people as the right construction. They will deceive people with false statements by plastering and painting previously damaged buildings. And they will make huge profits in these businesses. This is clearly an infringement of people right. Account for this, it will be given in the presence of Allah in the hereafter, even if it is not in this world. Allah's justice is finally realized and the one who has been wronged gets his punishment.

Managers who allow such irrational and unscientific works are also responsible. If they deviate from the right path in order to gain benefits in these matters, or if they are ignorant on this subject, they cannot escape the responsibility of wrong deeds. Even if the laws and supporters of the world protect themselves, they will definitely give an account for all these wrongs and unjust actions in the hereafter. The justice there is infallible, the power of acquaintance and money do not exceed there. There, every rightful owner will definitely get his right from the one who wronged him.

"Do not eat each other's property among yourselves unjustly." (Al-Baqarah, 2/188)

According to what Abu Hurayra (ra) reported, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said: “Every person who has rights will receive his due (on the Day of Judgment). Even the hornless animal gets its due from the horned animal, and even the ant gets its due from the ant.”

However, people turn a blind eye to these facts. They have been enslaved by the material benefits and pleasures of the worldly life. They are deceived by all kinds of deceptions of the nafs and the devil. They immersed themselves in enjoying the pleasures of the world, leaving behind the morals and shari'ah of Islam, which was communicated to people. What a bad life. This way of life will not bring them any good either in this world or in the hereafter.

“So leave them alone to indulge in vain discourse and amuse themselves until they come face to face with that Day which they have been promised.” (Al-Zukhruf, 43/83)



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Catechism of Disaster”, Fikret Karaman, Ýnönü University, Malatya, 2020

Drought and Famine Events in the Ottoman State”, Mehmet Yavuz Erler, Libra Kitap, Istanbul, 2010

Natural Disasters, Pandemic and Earthquake”, Fatih Sümbül, Gazi Publishing House, Ankara, 2020

"Rûhu'l-Beyân Commentary", Ýsmail Hakký Bursevî, Damla Publishing House, Istanbul, 2010

Sahih-i Muslim”, Abu Huseyin Muslim, Ýrfan Publishing, Istanbul, 2003

Taun”, Nükhet Varlýk, DIA, 40/175-177, Istanbul, 2011

The Earthquake”, Nuh Arslantaþ, DIA, 44/232-233, Istanbul 2013

The Plague of Amvas in the Period of Hazrat Omar”, Abdulkerim Öner, ÝSTEM, 18/35, 145-168, 2020


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And Disasters

Publishing Date: 18.08.2023